Barber did not practice all week because of a calf injury, and interim coach Jason Garrett acknowledged earlier Friday the Cowboys had prepared as if Barber would not play.
The Cowboys called up Lonyae Miller off the practice squad. To make room on the roster, the Cowboys placed rookie defensive end Sean Lissemore on injured reserve with an ankle injury.
"Just stay ready, you're coming with us is all they told me," said Miller, who signed a two-year deal after the promotion.
Barber suffered the calf strain he suffered in the Thanksgiving loss to New Orleans.
Miller signed as an undrafted free agent in April after rushing for 367 yards and four touchdowns as a senior at Fresno State. He quickly caught the eye of the coaches and front office in the offseason, but was stuck behind Barber, Jones and Choice.
Although he has been called up to the active roster, Miller still could be inactive Sunday.
"It's definitely a lot different going from scout team to actually being active, so there's a lot of stuff I'm going to have to brush up on real quick," Miller said. "But I've got a whole day to study, look at film and get in the playbook so by the time Sunday comes around I'll be ready."
Miller is the fifth player the Cowboys have called up from the practice squad this year and third this week, joining Andrew Sendejo and Martin Rucker.
This is the third straight season in which Barber has suffered a leg injury. In 2008, he suffered a toe injury, and last season he played with a quadriceps strain and was ineffective.
Barber is averaging just 3.1 yards per carry and is on pace to finish with a career-low 455 yards. He ran for 538 yards in 13 games as a rookie in 2005.
In other Cowboys news, rookie receiver Dez Bryant (back) was limited during practice and is listed on the official injury report as probable.
Linebacker Keith Brooking (foot) was limited in practice and is listed on the team's injury report as questionable. Cornerback Bryan McCann (ankle) also returned to practice on a limited basis and is listed as probable.
Todd Archer covers the Cowboys for ESPNDallas.com. Calvin Watkins of ESPNDallas.com also contributed to this report.