Seminole Tribe spokesman Gary Bitner says Carrillo left the casino when initially warned but came back 15 minutes later, so tribe police arrested him early Saturday. Bitner would not say what prompted the incident.
The 26-year-old was released from the Hillsborough County jail hours later after paying the $500 bond.
The Astros had no immediate comment on the incident.
Carrillo was a first-round pick in the 2005 amateur draft and went 1-2 with a 13.06 ERA in three starts for the San Diego Padres in 2009. He signed with the Astros in September.