Bosh missed his first four shots, then didn't miss again. The All-Star forward even threw in a buzzer-beating heave from 56 feet after stealing an inbounds pass, giving Toronto a 17-point lead after three quarters.
"That's a first for me," Bosh said. "I'm kind of addicted to that feeling. I hope all games go like that."
Toronto shot a season-high 59 percent and scored a franchise record 43 points in the third quarter.
Calderon's previous career high was 20 points on Nov. 2, 2005, against New Jersey. Toronto's backup point guard finished 10-for-13 from the field.
Calderon started in place of T.J. Ford, who played but remains bothered by a sore right ankle. Ford had four points and two assists in 16 minutes.
Ford asked coach Sam Mitchell to start Calderon instead of himself because he knew his minutes would be limited.
"It just shows his character," Bosh said. "Jose has been spectacular."
Gilbert Arenas had 27 points for the Wizards, who also lost in Toronto on Jan. 7.
Washington's Antawn Jamison missed the game with an injured right knee. He'll have an MRI on Thursday.
Coach Eddie Jordan said the Wizards were "searching for somebody to step in" without Jamison.
"We have to find a way to win without Antawn," said center Brendan Haywood, who said he had a lot less room to maneuver without Jamison drawing coverage to the 3-point line.
But it wouldn't have mattered with the way Bosh shot. Knicks guard Jamal Crawford hit 16 in a row last week in a victory over Miami.
"Fifteen straight. He got on one of those Jamal Crawford-type streaks," Haywood said. "When he hits a shot like that you know it's going to be his night. He had it going."
Toronto never trailed after Bosh his first shot of the game, a hook shot with 7:32 left in the first quarter.
Bosh had nine points and Toronto led by as many as 15 in the first quarter. Washington's Antonio Daniels had 12 points in the second quarter and the Wizards cut the lead to eight by halftime.
Bosh had 16 points as Toronto outscored Washington 43-34 in the third.
The Raptors (23-23) reached .500 again. They're 15-7 on their home court -- including an 11-2 mark against Eastern Conference opponents.
"I'm having a blast," Bosh said. "This is the most fun I've had since I've been here."
Toronto's Andrea Bargnani and Jorge Garbajosa made the rookie All-Star team, but Calderon didn't make the sophomore team. "It would have been nice, but I don't think we need Dr. Phil to come talk to us," Mitchell joked. ... Jamison collided with teammate DeShawn Stevenson under the basket with 6:29 remaining in the first quarter of Wednesday's game.