Colgate (6-12, 1-4 Patriot League) jumped out to an early 6-0 lead and held the Bison scoreless for the first 4:56 of the contest before center Chris McNaughton scored.
After an Abe Badmus three-pointer gave the Bison (10-8, 4-1) the lead for good at 13-12, Vegotsky connected from long range with 2:35 remaining in the first half.
Donald Brown, Bucknell's leading scorer, was held in check for most of the game but finished with 11 points and six rebounds.
Colgate kept it within single digits before back-to-back baskets by McNaughton blew it open with 8:38 remaining in the game.
The Raiders shot just 26 percent from the floor and a dismal 0-14 from three-point range. The Bison dominated inside, scoring 26 of their 50 points in the paint.
Kendall Chones led the Raiders with nine points. McNaughton added 12 for Bucknell.
The victory was Bucknell's 29th consecutive league win at home.