Keith was charged early Sunday with misdemeanor counts of disorderly conduct, resisting law enforcement, public intoxication and contributing to the delinquency of a minor, because a man he brought to the club with him was 19, police said.
He was released from jail later Sunday on his own recognizance. His initial hearing is set for Wednesday.
Officers working security tried to clear a crowd from the parking lot of the Cloud 9 club after it closed at 3 a.m. Sunday. The 27-year-old Keith and several others refused to leave and were laughing, dancing and joking, police said.
Police eventually ordered them to put their hands on a vehicle, but Keith refused and took out a cell phone to record the incident, according to an Indianapolis police report.
Keith kept saying, "I'm a Colts player, I'm a Colts player," the report said.
Police handcuffed him when he refused to put his hands behind his back and he was taken to jail, police said.
There was no phone number in the Indianapolis area for Keith. The Colts said in statement that the team was aware of the arrest but had no comment about the specifics of the case.
"Any incident involving any players with law enforcement we view very seriously, and we will act accordingly," team president Bill Polian said in the statement.
Last season was Keith's first with the Colts after playing in the Canadian Football League. He ran for 533 yards and scored four touchdowns, backing up Joseph Addai.