Houston police spokesman Victor Senties said Jolly was pulled over about 12:45 a.m. Friday. Senties said officers discovered a bottle containing 600 grams of codeine under the passenger's seat and another bottle with an unidentified substance in the driver's side door.
Jolly was charged with possession of a controlled substance with intent to distribute.
Senties said the former Houston high school star gave the arresting officers a state identification card instead of a driver's license. After a background check, police discovered Jolly's license had been suspended in 2007 and was ineligible for renewal.
A Packers spokesman said the team would have no comment. Jolly's agent didn't immediately respond to requests for comment.
Jolly was suspended by the NFL without pay for all of last season for violating the league's substance abuse policy. The ban stemmed from a separate drug arrest.
In July 2008, Jolly was arrested in Houston for possession of at least 200 grams of codeine, a second-degree felony.
Jolly could've faced up to 20 years in prison. But he was given pretrial diversion, a form of probation that would've had the charge against him dismissed if he didn't break the law over the next year. Part of the sentence was 160 hours of community service, which included 10 speaking engagements where he was supposed to talk to children and others about the dangers of drug use.
It was unclear how the latest charge would affect Jolly's probation. A call to attorney Michelle Beck, who was representing Jolly last year, was not immediately returned.
The 6-foot-3, 325-pound Jolly started all 16 games for Green Bay in 2008 and '09. Without him, the Packers won the Super Bowl last season.