Vrabel was arrested at the Belterra Casino Resort & Spa on a Class D felony charge -- the lowest level of felony crime in Indiana -- but was released Monday morning after posting a $600 bond.
An Indiana gaming agent saw Vrabel taking "bottles of alcohol from a deli" without paying for them, Indiana Gaming Commissioner Director of Enforcement Kenny Rowan told KMBC 9 in Kansas City.
"It was an unfortunate misunderstanding, and I take full responsibility for the miscommunication," Vrabel told ProFootballTalk.com in a statement through his agent Neil Cornrich. "I feel comfortable that after talking with the appropriate parties, we will resolve this matter."
Vrabel, 35, was arrested at 5:30 a.m. and released about five hours later.
The crime carries a penalty of six months to three years in jail and a fine of up to $10,000.
"We are aware of the reports regarding Mike Vrabel, but we are not permitted to have contact with Mike at this time," the Chiefs said in a statement. "We understand that Mike has communicated publicly that the matter is a misunderstanding for which he takes full responsibility. We hope it is resolved for Mike in a positive way."
Vrabel has also been a vocal member of the NFL Players Association and is among the 10 players named in the NFLPA's antitrust lawsuit against the league.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.