Vilma was hurt while trying to pressure Chargers quarterback Philip Rivers on the Saints' first defensive series of the second half. He remained briefly on his hands and knees before jogging to the sideline.
After trainers examined him, Vilma jogged to the locker room.
After the game, Payton did not have any updates on Vilma's condition, but Vilma wrote, "I'll be fine," on his Twitter account.
Vilma makes the Saints' on-field defensive calls and rarely misses a play during the regular season.
The Saints have one more preseason game next Thursday before hosting the Minnesota Vikings in the NFL regular season opener on Sept. 9.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.