The contract, averaging $3.75 million per year, is worth a total of $18.75 million.
Vermette, 27, had seven goals and six assists in 17 games after he was acquired from Ottawa last year in exchange for goaltender Pascal Leclaire and a second-round pick in the 2009 draft.
Vermette helped spur the Blue Jackets to the first trip to the playoffs in franchise history.
"We are pleased that Antoine has made this commitment to the Blue Jackets," general manager Scott Howson said. "His two-way game and versatility make him a good fit for our hockey club."
In 376 NHL games, Vermette has 87 goals and 93 assists.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.