Pronger, 36, underwent a procedure called a discectomy, performed by orthopedic specialist Frank Cammisa at The Hospital for Special Surgery in New York.
"Surgery went very well," Flyers GM Paul Holmgren said in a statement on the Flyers' website. "A disc fragment that was pressing up against a nerve was removed. Chris will begin a walking rehab in a few days. At week 6 post surgery [he] will begin core strengthening. A full recovery is anticipated."
Pronger, who helped lead the Flyers to the Stanley Cup finals last season, was limited to 50 regular-season games this year, scoring just four goals. He also played in just three playoff games and was a minus-3.
On Wednesday, forwards Mike Richards (left wrist) and Blair Betts (left pinkie) and defenseman Andrej Meszaros (right wrist) underwent successful surgeries, and goaltender Michael Leighton (hip) had afternoon surgery as well.
Holmgren said Leighton will begin rehab in a few days and forward Kris Versteeg, who had surgery to repair two tears in his abdominal wall, will start rehab in 10 days.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.