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Friday, December 28, 2001
Glossary of terms



Aerials | Moguls

Aerials
Back: a backward flip, also known as a single flip
Birani: a front flip with a half twist
Double: two flips
Front: a forward flip. the landing is very awkward on skis because of the forward rotation
Full In: a full twist on the first flip of a double or triple somersault
Full Out: a full twist on the last flip of a double or triple somersault
Half: a flip with a half twist (180 degrees) performed in a layout or puck position
Half In: a half twist on the first flip of a double or triple somersault
Half Out: a half twist on the last flip of a double or triple somersault
Height and Distance: a section of the air score. The arc that the skier flies when jumping. Skiers' flights should take them straight up and over the knoll instead of flat over the landing hill
Kicker: the launching jump from which aerialists catch air
Layout or lay: the body is extended as straight as possible
Pike: the body bends at the waist and the legs remain straight
Puck: the body is in an open tuck position with legs pulled up 45 degrees (hands don't have to touch the knees)
Pop: the extension or snap at the lip of the jump that sets the trick in motion
Quadruple or Quad: Four flips
Randy: a flip with 2½ twists
Rudy: a flip with 1½ twists
Single: one flip
Sling: a bad takeoff from the kicker that sets a very fast rotation. Slings usually happen when jumpers throw their arms and shoulders back too quickly
Slap Back: when jumpers over-rotate on their landings and their backs hit the snow before they stand up and ski down the outrun
Take Off: the launch. a good one has knees, hips and arms all completely extended as the skier's feet cross the end of the kicker
Triple: three flips
Tuck: the knees are pulled up in front of the body to an angle of 90 degrees from the body
Twist: a spin (rotation of the body around the long axis)

SINGLES
Back Tuck: single flip in tuck position rotating backward
Front Tuck: single flip in tuck position rotating forward
Back Layout: single flip in straight body position
Full: flip with a full twist done in the layout position
Double Full: flip with two twists

DOUBLES
Double Tuck: two flips in the tuck position
Lay Tuck: double flip, the first in layout position, the second in the tuck position
Double Layout or Lay Lay: double flip in the layout position
Lay Full: double flip in the layout position with a full twist in the second flip
Half Half: a half twist on the first flip and a half twist on the second flip
Full Tuck/Pike: two flips with one twist, full twist in the first flip
Full Lay: two flips in the layout position with one twist in the first flip
Full In Full Out: two flips with two twists. A double-twisting, double flip
Full Double Full: two flips with three twists, double flip in second twist

TRIPLES
Triple Tuck: triple flip in the tuck position
Lay Tuck Tuck: triple flip, first in layout position, second and third in tuck position
Lay Tuck Full: triple flip, first in layout position, second in tuck position, third in layout position with a full twist Lay Full Tuck triple flip, first in layout position, second laid out with a full twist, third in the tuck position without a twist
Lay Lay Full: triple flip, first two in layout position, third in layout position with a full twist
Lay Full Full: a double twisting triple flip
Half Tuck Half: three flips with two half twists. middle flip rotates forward
Half Half Full: first flip has a half twist, second flip is rotating forward and has a half twist, third flip has full twist
Half Full Half: three flips with two twists, half twist in the first and third flip, full twist in second flip
Half Rudy Full: half twist in the first flip, 1½ twists in second flip, full twist in third flip
Full Tuck Full: three flips with two twists, second flip is without a twist
Full Full Full: three flips with three twists
Full Double Full Tuck: three flips with three twists, second flip has two twists
Full Double Full Full: three flips with four twists
Double Full Full Full: three flips with four twists. Two twists on the first flip, right off the jump
Half Randy Full: three flips with five twists
Full Double Full Double Full: three flips with five twists

Moguls
Air: to get yourself and your skis off the surface of the snow (to jump.) Two airs are required in each moguls run.
Backscratcher: skiers touch their backs with the tails of both skis. The knees bend under the body, and the shoulders and hips have to move back to keep the skier from falling forward.
Body Position: the stance, balance and movement of the skier's body
Carving: efficient use of edging to control speed in and out of the turns during a run
Cossack: hands down straight, skis up by your ears. Gold medal jump.
Daffy: legs are spread wide with one in front of the body and the other behind. The front ski tip is pointed up, the back tip is pointed down, with the skis parallel
Double Upright: the combination of two moves in one jump
Helicopter: an upright aerial spin of 360 degrees
Iron Cross: ski tips are crossed while the skier stays upright
Mule Kick: a 90-degree drop of the skis with a 45-degree twist to the side. The tips drop but the heels are kicked out to one side
Multiple Maneuvers: any combination of tricks, for example, Double Daffy, Daffy Twister Spread
Reverse Trough: technique of skiing on top of the moguls and turning in the opposite direction of the deep path of ruts (see trough)
Ruts: the deepest section between the moguls
Spread Eagle/Spread: arms are extended and legs split to the sides while the upper body remains upright with ski tips and tails even and parallel
Tip Cross: ski tips cross, the skier stays upright
Tip Drop: see backscratcher
Triple Upright: a combination of three moves in one jump
Trough: ruts, or the deep path through the moguls
Turns: consistent changes in direction of travel to either side of the fall line
Twister: skis twist 90 degrees to one side of the body, hands and body twist to the opposite side
Zuznik: the upper body is leaning forward toward the tips of the skis
360, 720: the number of degrees in one full twist (360) and two full twists (720)
4-Point Takeoff: both poles plant as the skier pops off a mogul when jumping

Source: U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association