Koubek, who will face a fine, led 5-7, 7-6 (4), 4-2 when the second-round match was interrupted.
The Austrian was angered after Grosjean protested a linesman's call on his serve. The linesman originally called the shot out but then said he could not be sure.
The chair umpire wanted Grosjean to replay the point, but Koubek asked for supervisor Thomas Karlberg to intervene. The two then argued, and Karlberg said Koubek targeted him with "verbal abuse."
It was not immediately clear what Koubek said during the argument. Koubek declined to comment.
In 2000, Koubek was disqualified from the French Open after throwing his racket at a ball boy.
Beside Grosjean, two other Frenchmen advanced to the next round. Nicolas Mahut of France defeated compatriot Julien Benneteau 6-3, 3-6, 6-3, and Jo-Wilfried Tsonga beat No. 7 Philipp Kohlschreiber 5-7, 7-6(5), 6-3.
In other matches, third-seeded Andy Murray of Britain beat Michael Llodra of France 6-4, 6-3 and Guillermo Canas of Argentina defeated Jurgen Melzer of Austria 7-6(3), 7-6(6). Igor Andreev, the eighth-seeded Russian, beat Nicolas Lapentti of Ecuador 6-3, 6-3.